The lack of vitamins in the diet leads to various diseases. There are two main types of vitamins which are :-
- Fat soluble vitamins :These group include vitamins A, D, E, and K. They require the presence of fat for proper absorption.
- Water soluble vitamins:-These are vitamins of B-complex group and vitamins C .They are soluble in water,and the excess amount of these are excreted through urine.
We get vitamin A from food in two forms :-
1) Retinol which is also commonly called vitamin A, is the form in which vitamin is utilised by the body.It is present mainly in animal foods .
2) Beta carotene which is the precursor of Retinol or vitamin A is the present in plant foods. Eight part of beta carotene would be converted to one part of vitamin A in the body.
Food which are good source of vitamin A are butter, milk, ghee, curd, and eggs; Liver and fish liver oils are very good source of vitamin A. It is also obtain from yellow and red vegetables like carrots, tomatoes, pumpkin, and fruit like papayas, and mangoes.
Vitamins A is very important for ours eyes. Vitamins A also keeps the eyes healthy, moist, clear and protected from infections.It is also necessary for healthy development of skin and for normal growth of body.
Effect of deficiency/excess:-
If the diet is lacking in vitamin A the first symptom of this deficiency is inability to see in dim light. This is known as night blindness.Deficiency also effect the skin in that it becomes dry and wrinkled.
Excessive amount of vitamin A if taken as a medicine is also harmful. It leads to headache and vomiting. In such case, The intake should be stopped.
We get vitamin D mostly from a precursor which is present under our skin. When the sun rays fall on skin, this precursor gets converted into vitamin D. We can also obtain it in small amounts from some foods.
We mainly depend upon action of sun light on precursor. We also get the vitamin from food like liver, fish, eggs, yolk, milk, butter, and ghee.fish liver oil very good source of vitamins D.
Vitamins D is important for the proper absorption of calcium in our body and its deposit in bone and teeth. It helps in the formation of strong bones and healthy teeth.
Effect of deficiency:-
Deficiency of vitamin D cause rickets diseases in children. In this calcium and phosphorus are not absorb properly so bone and teeth remain soft and weak. This leads to poor growth of child.
In young girl, deficiency of vitamin D leads to improper formation of the bones of the pelvis, which later on cause difficulty in delivery of a baby.
This is also a fat soluble vitamin. It is important in the health functioning of the reproductive system in the body. Deficiency of this vitamin, can leads to problems related to the reproductive system.
However it is rare that deficiency of this vitamin is seen because it is present in many foods that we are commonly eat.
Also, it is required by the body in small amounts and so the need can be easily met. Whole grain cereals, soyabean, peanuts, coconut, etc. are good source of vitamin E.
Another name for vitamin K is Phytonadione, which is one of its major types. This help to bring about clotting of blood and thus prevents or stops the loss of blood from our body whenever there is an injury or cut.
A little amont of vitamin K is synthesised in our body by some microorganisms present in our intestine.
The food sources are green leafy vegetables like spinach, methi, radish leaves, etc.
When there is deficiency of vitamin K, the body looses a lot of blood due to a cut or injury. Pregnent mothers and new born babies are often gives a dose of vitamin K to check bleeding during child birth and brain hemorrhage, respectively.
It is also known as ascorbic acid. It is easily destroyed on exposure to heat and light. We mainly get it from fruits and vegetables.
Vitamins C is often called the fresh food vitamins. This is so because it is very easily destroyed on cooking. Citrus fruit like oranges, sweet lime, Lemons, are very good source of vitamin C. Sprouted grams, guava, and pineapple are also rich in vitamins C.
Other good source are vegetables like cabbage, green chillies, Tomato and green leafy vegetables like spinach, methi, radish leaves and amaranath. Amla is a cheap and rich source of vitamin C.
Vitamin C is important in the body for the healthy development of our teeth, gums, and skin. It also gives us the ability to protect ourselves against infections.
Effect of deficiency:-
The deficiency of disease of vitamin C is called Scurvy. There is pain, swelling, bleeding, of the gums. The teeth get loose and may fall off. There is also swelling, pain, and tenderness in joints.