When any thing contain advantage and disadvantage both. Then need to regulate it. To prevent misuse of MTP need rule and regulations. MTP act was passed in 1971 with many guidelines and condition. Before 1971 no rule and regulations is present about medical termination of pregnancy act. Abortion is totally illegal and big offence before act.
In 1960, abortion was legal in fifteen countries. To prevent illegal case about abortion india take a legal framework. Indian government made a committee. This committee lead by shantilal shah. Serval suggestions points given by shah committee.
By follow shah committee suggestions and key point medical termination of Pregnancy act 1971 was made.
MTP Act 1971
Act provide legality to abortion with following serval condition. Upto 20 weeks of Pregnancy can be terminate. But abortion or termination can be done only under below conditions.
- Unwanted pregnancy is occur, or pregnancy caused due to rape.
- When pregnancy is harmful for both, mother and child also.
- Pregnancy continuation cause a big risk to women health, also lead to death related condition.
- When fetus effected by serious permanent physical disability then pregnancy can be terminated.
Normal abortion without any reason is a big offence. Without any above guidelines pregnancy terminate is illegal and treat under IPC 312.
Where can Terminate a Pregnancy
Government approved hospital is have default location to pregnancy termination. Any other private sector I.e. hospital which approved by state or central govt. Can be terminate Pregnancy.
No any hospital is eligible for MTP process. Need to follow specific guidelines and regulations to get MTP approval.
Who can Terminate a Pregnancy
According to MTP guidelines, termination of Pregnancy done by registerd medical practitioner (RMP). Not every RMP is eligible for particular process. Need following requirement for Abortion.
- RMP name is entered in state medical registar.
- He/she has medical qualifications from recognise institute under MCI act (Indian Medical Council act).
- Who has necessary training or experience in obstetrics and gynaecology as par specific guidelines.
Amendment in MTP Act
For improved updation is necessary. Amendment is part of any bill or regulations. Number of amendment is done in MTP act.
Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 2002 , Rule 2003
For improvement MTP act 1971 was amendment in 2002. This amendment done for increases access for women other then government sector.
- Before 2002 abortion only done in govt. Hospital. In this amendment made a committee at district level. Which committee provide approval to private place at district level.
- Word lunatic was replace with word mentally ill person. The word mentally ill person means person who suffering from mental retardation.
- Stick penalties are introduced for safety of women.
MTP Amendment 2014
Amendment in MTP 2014 done for safety of women. These amendment help to improvement legalization and safety abortion of women in country. Main key point of amendment 2014 are following
- Improve clarity in medical termination of pregnancy act
- Improve legalization in MTP act
- Improve and increment legal MTP ‘ s upper gestation limit.
- Provider base expanding
MTP Act 2020 ( Amendment )
Union Cabinet approved MTP act 2020 (amendment). In this bill seeks to extent termination of pregnancy periods more then 24 weeks weeks. Before these amendment this period under 20 weeks.
Feature of MTP Act 2020
- Act 2020 is the amendment of medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1971.
- Before these amendment require one registered medical practitioner for 20 week gestation.
- Amendment 2020 introduce of opinion two registered medical practitioners for termination of pregnancy upto 24 weeks gestation.
- It also enhance gestation limit for special cases like rape, victim of incest, differently abled women.